VU
Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4b

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A4b
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A3b
2010 Near Threatened A3b
2008 Near Threatened A3b
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass 535 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 2,200,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 8,410,000 km2 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown good estimated 2010
Population trend decreasing poor estimated 2006-2030
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 15% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 31-40% - - -
Generation length 8.1 years - - -

Population justification: Gutiérrez and Guinart (2008) reported a global population of 21,161 pairs. However, more recent figures suggest that the global population is likely to have peaked around 2007 at c. 25,000 pairs (BirdLife International in prep.). This has fallen rapidly over the past few years and the current EU population is estimated at 15,900- 21,800 pairs (BirdLife International in prep.)
Allowing for the small known breeding populations outside the EU, the global population probably numbers c. 33,000-46,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population has suffered a rapid reduction since around 2010, following the reduction in fisheries discards (after previous unsustainable levels of trawl discards had driven a substantial population increase over the previous three generations). At the same time, the very large colony holding the majority of global population collapsed, which is thought to be due to reproductive failure caused by the presence of mammalian predators (Payo-Payo et al. 2018) and the decline in fishery discards (Calado et al. 2018, García-Tarrasón et al. 2015). Due to the previous increase, over the past three generations (24 years, using the methods described in Bird et al. (2020) the rate of decline is approximately 15%, but the reduction for a three generation period between 2006 and 2030 is suspected to be 31-40% (BirdLife International in prep.). It is uncertain whether the reduction will continue at this rate over the next three generations, as new colonies are likely to be founded from the remaining adults. However, with the reduction in food availability, the population is not expected to recover to numbers seen in the first decade of the current century, hence a population reduction over the next three generations of between 20-29% is suspected. 


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Albania extant uncertain
Algeria extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant uncertain
Bulgaria extant vagrant
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes yes
Czechia extant vagrant
Egypt extant vagrant
France extant native yes
Gambia extant native yes
Georgia extant vagrant yes
Germany extant vagrant
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Israel extant vagrant yes
Italy extant native yes yes
Jordan extant vagrant
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Libya extant native yes
Malta extant vagrant
Mauritania extant native yes
Monaco extant uncertain
Montenegro extant uncertain
Morocco extant native yes
North Macedonia extant vagrant yes
Palestine extant vagrant yes
Portugal extant native yes
Senegal extant native yes
Slovenia extant uncertain
Spain extant native yes yes
Switzerland extant vagrant
Syria extant uncertain
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
United Kingdom extant vagrant
Western Sahara extant uncertain

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Greece Amorgos island
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
Algeria Îles Habibas
Algeria Île Rachgoune
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Oued Chebeika
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Pointe d'Awfist
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Senegal Cap Vert
Tunisia Archipel de la Galite
Tunisia Archipel de Zembra
Türkiye Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Türkiye Alaçatı
Türkiye Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Türkiye Göksu Delta
Türkiye Aydıncık and Ovacık Coast
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Sant'Andrea island
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Alborán island
Spain Tarifa
Spain Ceuta
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza)
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza)
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Golfo de Cádiz
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar
Spain Bahía de Almería
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Plataforma-talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca
Spain Campiña de Conil y Vejer de la Frontera
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Kythira island
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Skiathos and Skopelos islands
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Greece Serifos island
Croatia NW Part of Mljet National Park
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Türkiye Bodrum Peninsula
Italy Northern Sardinia
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Meles meles Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/audouins-gull-larus-audouinii on 28/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 28/02/2024.