Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A3b
2010 Near Threatened A3b
2008 Near Threatened A3b
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 535 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,410,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2010
Population trend Stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: Gutiérrez and Guinart (2008) reported a global population of 21,161 pairs. However, more recent figures point to a total of 21,300-22,300 pairs, of which 21,080-21,310 pairs are in Europe. The most recent estimate for the European population is 43,000-44,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The global population is estimated to number 63,900-66,900 individuals (G. Eken in litt. 1999, N. Baccetti in litt. 2008, D. Portolou in litt. 2010).

Trend justification: The population has expanded owing to increased availability of fisheries discards close to key breeding colonies. Current fishery practices are unsustainable and may result in collapse in the fishery in the future. This would induce population declines in Audouin's Gull. The European breeding population has increased substantially over the last three generations (39 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 13 years) (BirdLife International 2015). Since 2000, numbers have remained stable overall, with continued increases in some western and central Mediterranean countries, declines in a few eastern Mediterranean countries, and fluctuations in Spain, which holds c. 90% of the European population. 

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania U Extant
Algeria N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina U Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia V Extant
Egypt V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia V Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro U Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Slovenia U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria U Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Île Rachgoune
Algeria Îles Habibas
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Croatia NW Part of Mljet National Park
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Cerbicale
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Skiathos and Skopelos islands
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Italy Northern Sardinia
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Italy Sant'Andrea island
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Oued Chebeika
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Pointe d'Awfist
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Senegal Cap Vert
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal La Petite Côte
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca
Spain Alborán island
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Bahía de Almería
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Campiña de Conil y Vejer de la Frontera
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Ceuta
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar
Spain Golfo de Cádiz
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza)
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza)
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Plataforma-talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Tunisia Archipel de la Galite
Tunisia Archipel de Zembra
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Aydıncık and Ovacık Coast
Turkey Bodrum Islands
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from on 12/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 12/12/2019.