Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened A3b
2010 Near Threatened A3b
2008 Near Threatened A3b
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 535 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,410,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good estimated 2010
Population trend Stable poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: Gutiérrez and Guinart (2008) reported a global population of 21,161 pairs. However, more recent figures point to a total of 21,300-22,300 pairs, of which 21,080-21,310 pairs are in Europe. The most recent estimate for the European population is 43,000-44,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The global population is estimated to number 63,900-66,900 individuals (G. Eken in litt. 1999, N. Baccetti in litt. 2008, D. Portolou in litt. 2010).

Trend justification: The population has expanded owing to increased availability of fisheries discards close to key breeding colonies. Current fishery practices are unsustainable and may result in collapse in the fishery in the future. This would induce population declines in Audouin's Gull. The European breeding population has increased substantially over the last three generations (39 years, based on a generation length estimated by BirdLife to be 13 years) (BirdLife International 2015). Since 2000, numbers have remained stable overall, with continued increases in some western and central Mediterranean countries, declines in a few eastern Mediterranean countries, and fluctuations in Spain, which holds c. 90% of the European population. 

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania U Extant
Algeria N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina U Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia V Extant
Egypt V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia V Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro U Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
North Macedonia V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Slovenia U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria U Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Klidhes Islands
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Turkey Aydıncık and Ovacık Coast
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Anafi island
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Karpathian sea islets
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Tarifa
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza)
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza)
Spain Tramuntana mountains
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Littoral islets of Murcia and Almería
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Alborán island
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Ceuta
Spain River Mijares mouth
Spain Prat de Cabanes-Torreblanca
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Sant'Andrea island
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Italy Cape San Marco
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Italy Coastal stretches from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa
Italy Mount Ferru of Tertenia
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Georgia Kolkheti
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Algeria Îles Habibas
Algeria Île Rachgoune
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Sidi Moussa - Oualidia
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Oued Chebeika
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Pointe d'Awfist
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Cap Vert
Tunisia Archipel de la Galite
Tunisia Archipel de Zembra
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Bodrum Islands
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Lebanon Palm Islands Nature Reserve
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Basse vallée du Var
France Iles Sanguinaires
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Datça and Bozburun peninsula
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago
Croatia NW Part of Mljet National Park
Croatia Middle Dalmatian Islands and Peljesac Penninsula
Italy Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino
Italy Cuglieri coast
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Golfo de Cádiz
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar
Spain Bahía de Almería
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Plataforma-talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca
Spain Campiña de Conil y Vejer de la Frontera
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Greece Skiathos and Skopelos islands
Portugal Ria Formosa - Oceânica
Greece Serifos island
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Senegal Delta du Saloum - marine
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Venetiko islet, Chios
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Christiana and Aspronisi islets, Thira
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Italy Northern Sardinia
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from on 28/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2020.