Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2015 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,500,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 47,400,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-75000 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: Combined totals from across the whole range estimate the number of pairs at 31,372 (26,014-36,731) which equates to 62,744 (52,028-73,462) mature individuals or 94,116 (78,042-110,193) individuals (I. Karyakin in litt. 2015). The global population is estimated to number less than 37,000 pairs (Karyakin et al. 2016).

Trend justification: The population is declining owing to habitat destruction (especially conversion of steppe into agricultural land), persecution, and collisions with power lines. Locally populations are declining owing to heavy predation of chicks (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 80% or more in 49.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015) however the European population represents only a small proportion of the global population. Combined totals from across the species's range suggest a decline of 58.6% between 1997-2011 and 2013-2015 (I. Karyakin in litt. 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Angola V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Mali V Extant
Moldova N Extinct Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Swaziland N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extinct Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kenya Mutitu Forest
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Turkey Hodulbaba Mountain
Turkey Tuz Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 7900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Aquila nipalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2019.