Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2016 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2015 Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 47,500,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-75000 poor estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.3 - - -

Population justification: Combined totals from across the whole range estimate the number of pairs at 31,372 (26,014-36,731), which equates to 62,744 (52,028-73,462) mature individuals or 94,116 (78,042-110,193) individuals (I. Karyakin in litt. 2015). The global population is hence below 37,000 pairs (Karyakin et al. 2016).

Trend justification: The population is declining owing to habitat destruction (especially conversion of steppe into agricultural land), persecution, and collisions with power lines. Locally populations are declining owing to heavy predation of chicks (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 80% or more in 49.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015) however the European population represents only a small proportion of the global population. Combined totals from across the species's range suggest a decline of 58.6% between 1997-2011 and 2013-2015 (I. Karyakin in litt. 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant
Angola N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes Yes
Belarus V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
Chad V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia V Extant
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mali V Extant
Moldova N Extinct
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extinct
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Russia (European) Levo-Dobrinskaya valley
Russia (European) Vicinity of Borisoglebovka (Saratovski [Semenovski] Reserve)
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski
Russia (European) Algaiski
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Russia (European) Stepnovski saltmarshes
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River
Russia (Central Asian) Talduair mountain
Russia (European) Zolotarevskaya area
Russia (Central Asian) Cheka mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Kazakhstan Irgiz-Turgay Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Gornaya Kolyvan'
Russia (Central Asian) Loktevskaya
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Afghanistan Small Pamir
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kavir region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Kazakhstan Urda Sands
Kazakhstan North-western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Jordan Dana
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands
Kazakhstan Middle reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Turkmenistan Koymat - Begarslan
Turkmenistan Tejen
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Lebanon Lake Qaraoun
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Kazakhstan Sagyz
Russia (Central Asian) Aleyskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Krasnoschekovskaya
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Turkey Hodulbaba Mountain
Turkey Tuz Lake
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Russia (European) Sources of Alimbet river and Aktykyl ridge
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Lebanon Beirut River Valley
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Karatal River
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Big Almaty Gorge
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Yemen Jabal Bura
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Gebel El Zeit
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Ethiopia Bale Mountains National Park
Yemen Aden
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Egypt Ras Mohammed National Park
Yemen Bab al-Mandab - Mawza
Ethiopia Lake Langano
Jordan Aqaba coast and mountains
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Midi - Al-Luhayyah
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Al-Fashkha
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mugogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Uzbekistan Talimardzhan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Northern part of the Assake-Audan depression
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake
Kenya Mutitu Forest
Greece Kythira island
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Repetek
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Garabil
Turkmenistan Koytendag

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 7900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Aquila nipalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/04/2021.