Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti

Family: Spheniscidae (Penguins)

Authority: Meyen, 1834

Red List Category

Criteria: A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde

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Justification of Red List category
This species has undergone extreme population size fluctuations at major colonies in Chile, but there are considerable uncertainties in the population size and trend. Observed declines in Peruvian colonies and an overall reduction in the number of breeding colonies indicate that there is probably an ongoing, underlying rapid decline in numbers. The species consequently qualifies as Vulnerable. However, if the Chilean population, which comprises the majority of the global population, is found to be stable, the species will warrant downlisting in the future.

Population size: 23800 mature individuals

Population trend: decreasing

Extent of occurrence (breeding/resident): 2,710,000 km2

Country endemic: no

Land-mass type - continent
Realm - Neotropical
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from on 28/11/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/11/2023.