African Penguin Spheniscus demersus

Family: Spheniscidae (Penguins)

Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red List Category

Criteria: A2ace+3bce+4ace

Click here for more information about the Red List categories and criteria

Justification of Red List category
This species is classified as Endangered because it is undergoing a very rapid population decline, probably as a result of commercial fisheries and shifts in prey populations. This trend currently shows no sign of reversing, and immediate conservation action is required to prevent further declines. Recent count data for the number of breeding pairs suggests that the rate of decline may actually have increased in recent years. If the estimated rate of population decline is confirmed to have accelerated, the species may require uplisting. 

Population size: 41700 mature individuals

Population trend: decreasing

Extent of occurrence (breeding/resident): 3,920,000 km2

Country endemic: no

Land-mass type - continent
Realm - Afrotropical
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Spheniscus demersus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/african-penguin-spheniscus-demersus on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 22/02/2024.