VU
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti



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Red List Category

Criteria: A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde;C1+2b

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Justification of Red List category
This species has undergone extreme population size fluctuations, (close to one order of magnitude) at major colonies in Chile. However, an overall reduction in the number of breeding colonies indicates that there is probably an ongoing, underlying rapid decline in numbers. It consequently qualifies as Vulnerable.

Population size: 2500-9999 mature individuals

Population trend: Decreasing

Distribution size (breeding/resident): 73,300 km2

Country endemic: No

Attributes
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Realm - Neotropical - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/12/2016.