Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because its population has undergone a very rapid reduction, for reasons that are poorly understood; this decline is projected to continue and increase in the future. Fieldwork in Kazakhstan (and counts in Turkey and the Middle East) has shown the population to be substantially larger than previously feared, but recent demographic studies have found low adult survival, possibly largely driven by hunting pressure along the migration routes and wintering grounds.
BirdLife Species Champion:
Swarovski Optik and RSPB
BirdLife Species Guardian:
Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
11200 mature individuals
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Realm - Afrotropical - realm
Realm - Indomalayan - realm
Realm - Palearctic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome