CR
Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Calidris pygmaea (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Eurynorhynchus as E. pygmeus.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Mayr, E. 1933. Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition. XXVII. Notes on the variation of immature and adult plumages in birds and a physiological explanation of abnormal plumages. American Museum Novitates 666: 1-10.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i) A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i); D A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i)
2013 Critically Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd;C2a(i)
2011 Critically Endangered A2a,b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4a,b,c,d; C2a(i)
2010 Critically Endangered A2a,b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4a,b,c,d
2009 Critically Endangered A2a,b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4a,b,c,d
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 355,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,430,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 240-400 good estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-100 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-100 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.3 - - -

Population justification: The breeding population in 2009/2010 was estimated at 120-200 pairs, roughly equivalent to 240-400 mature individuals and 360-600 individuals in total, although this is thought to be an optimistic estimate. Recent estimates put the population at no more than 120 pairs based on wintering numbers (Zöckler et al. 2016) and breeding surveys (Syroechkovskiy et al. in litt. to Zöckler et al. 2016) or no more than 200 pairs (Clark et al, in prep.). Based on survey records from 2005 to 2013 the number of individuals across the wintering range is estimated to be 242-378 (Zöckler et al. 2016).

Trend justification: The breeding population in 2009/2010 was optimistically estimated at 120-200 pairs (Bird et al. 2010b, Zöckler et al. 2010a). An estimate of 120-200 pairs indicates an 88% decline since 2002, equating to an annual rate of decline of 26% (Zöckler et al. 2010a).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
USA V Extant Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bangladesh Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta
Bangladesh Patenga Beach
Bangladesh Sonadia Island
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries)
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Myanmar Ayeyarwady Delta (including Meinmahla Kyun)
Myanmar Central Tanintharyi Coast
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Myanmar Nantha Island
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Kangryong field
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir)
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Mechigmen lagoon
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya bay
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Ul'banskiy bay
Russia (Asian) Vankarem lowlands and Kolyuchin bay
Singapore Ubin-Khatib
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
Taiwan (China) Chihben Wetlands
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Vietnam Ba Tri
Vietnam Nghia Hung
Vietnam Thai Thuy
Vietnam Xuan Thuy

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Altitude 0 - 70 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Spartina alterniflora Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Calidris pygmaea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2017.