LC
Eurasian Penduline-tit Remiz pendulinus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
An estimate combining various basic regional summaries in Madge (2019) would put the global population at over 1,400,000. This excludes the subspecies R. p. macronyx, so it is preliminarily used here as a minimum estimate.

Trend justification
The population is estimated to be increasing following substantial recorded range expansions and only minor range contractions (Harrap and Quinn 1996). In many cases, human disturbance has provided more habitat through, for example, the creation of fish farms and lakes through mining subsidence (Madge 2019). Historical declines of the subspecies macronyx through agricultural changes in central Asia and the disappearance of the Aral Sea are thought to have been significant (Madge 2019).

Ecology

This species favours lakeside and riverine swampy vegetation and a good mixture of emergent vegetation, including reeds (Phragmites), with reedmace (Typha), poplars (Populus) and willows (Salix). It can be monogamous, but is often polygamous or polyandrous and egg-laying begins in late April and continues to the beginning of July (Madge 2019). The nest is a large, free-hanging domed pouch-like structure, with a short downward-projecting entrance tube near the top. It is made of plant fibres mixed with plant down and animal hair and lined with plant down and occasionally feathers. Clutches are generally 2-7 eggs (Madge 2019). It feeds on small invertebrates, particularly the larvae of small insects and will also consume seeds. Northern populations of this species are highly migratory while southern populations are generally resident (Madge 2019).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway

There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed

There are currently no conservation measures proposed for this species.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Smith, D., Calvert, R., Ashpole, J


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Remiz pendulinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2020.