LC
Common Woodpigeon Columba palumbus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 490 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 32,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 26,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 51000000-73000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 20,500,000-29,000,000 pairs, which equates to 40,900,000-58,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c. 80% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 51-73 million mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is increasing in many parts of its range as it can exploit human-modified habitats; it has expanded its range northwards to Fenno-Scandia and Faeroe Islands (del Hoyo et al. 1997). The population trend in Europe increased moderately between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Zachodniaja Biarezina
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Latvia Slitere and Zilie kalni
Portugal Sado estuary
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Litokaira
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Riisitunturi
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest
Russia (European) Zaonezh'ye
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Spain River Moros
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Russia (European) Kenozer'ye
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Gorgany
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Mokri Yasli forestry plantation
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Marais de Sacy
France Ile de la Platière
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Montagne de la Serre
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Grigne
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Carniche Alps
Italy Piave river
Italy Rieti mountains
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Maritime Alps
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Fruska gora
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Zlot gorge--Dubasnica
Serbia Resava gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Lobau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Machland
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Russia (Central Asian) Rocky outcrops of river Uj
Russia (Central Asian) Parshivye mountains
Bulgaria Maritsa-Parvomay
Portugal Lomba Grande
Portugal Cabeço do Fogo
Portugal Zona Central do Pico
Portugal Pico da Vara
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Salzach valley
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Italy Lake Candia
Germany Vogelsberg
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Russia (European) Floodplain of Ilek river near Pokrovka
Armenia Haghartsin
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Columba palumbus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020.