Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 7,810,000-14,100,000 pairs, which equates to 15,600,000-28,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.25% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 62,400,000-113,200,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
In Europe the overall trend from 1980 to 2013 was decreasing (EBCC 2015).
This species is found in lowland to montane moist forests, woodlands and thickets of willows (Salix), alder (Alnus), poplar (Populus), tamarisks (Tamarix), scrub and bushes in taiga forest edges and clearings. It also occurs in riverine thickets, reedbeds and patches of bushes in meadows, forest edges, hedges, orchards, cherry (Prunus) trees and the edges of cultivation. In forest-steppe and higher areas of montane foothills it found in bracken (Pteridium), dwarf willows, juniper (Juniperus) and on bush-covered slopes with isolated birch (Betula) and firs (Abies). It even breeds in some city centres (Clement and Christie 2016).
The breeding season is from May to August and the species in monogamous. The nest is a loose or untidy cup of twigs, plant stems and fibres, grass, flowerheads, plant down, moss, lichens and animal hair. It is set low down in a bush, juniper or spruce or willow sapling and is well hidden in a tangle of foliage or against a trunk, occasionally in scrub tangle and rarely on the ground. Clutches are four to six eggs. The diet is mainly plant and tree seeds, buds, catkins, shoots, leaves, fruit and berries but it will also take nectar, insects and their larvae and other arthropods. The species is migratory and partially migratory (Clement and Christie 2016).
In Europe there are not thought to be any current significant threats to this species.
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Research to identify the drivers of population declines and appropriate conservation measures.
Text account compilers
Symes, A., Butchart, S., Ashpole, J, Ekstrom, J.
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Carpodacus erythrinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/08/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/08/2021.