EN
Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acde+3cde A2acde+3cde; C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2acde+3cde
2015 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4cde
2013 Vulnerable C1+2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C1+2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C1+2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C1; C2a(ii)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,250,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,680,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 9400 good estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-70 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -

Population justification: In 2006, the total population was estimated at 8,000-10,000 individuals (M. Diekmann in litt. 2006), roughly equivalent to 5,300-6,700 mature individuals. The global population estimate has been revised with an estimate of 4,700 pairs or 9,400 mature individuals (Allan 2015).

Trend justification: The population is estimated to have declined by 10% between 1994 and 1999 (Barnes 2000), and over the period 1992-2007, the species declined by 60-70% in eastern South Africa (McKean and Botha 2007). There remains some uncertainty over the severity of population declines experienced by this species. Ogada et al. (2016) estimate a median decline of 92% (range: 87-94%) over three generations (48 years). However, according to the 2015 Eskom Red Data Book of Birds (Allan 2015), declines in South Africa since the 1960s may be between 66 and 81% (though this relies on individuals not moving between breeding colonies, which is not necessarily true [Borello and Borello 2002, P. Benson in litt. 2016]), and some populations in South Africa are reported to be increasing (Benson 2015, P. Benson in litt. 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extinct Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Swaziland N Extinct Yes
Zambia V Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Botswana Mannyelanong Hill
Botswana Tswapong Hills
Lesotho Liqobong
Lesotho Mafika - Lisiu
Lesotho Sehlabathebe National Park
Lesotho Sehonghong and Matebeng
Lesotho Upper Quthing Valley
Lesotho Upper Senqu River
Mozambique Changelane river gorge
Mozambique Maputo Special Reserve
Namibia Waterberg Plateau Park
South Africa Blouberg
South Africa Blyde River Canyon
South Africa Collywobbles Vulture Colony
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Greater Ngwangwana River
South Africa Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park
South Africa Kruger National Park and adjacent areas
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Magaliesberg
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Mkhambati Nature Reserve
South Africa Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve
South Africa Pilanesberg National Park
South Africa Soutpansberg
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve
South Africa Umtamvuna Nature Reserve
South Africa Waterberg System
Zimbabwe Hwange National Park
Zimbabwe Wabai Hill (Debshan Ranch)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human and veterinary - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Gyps coprotheres. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017.