Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species has a small, regionally declining population as a result of habitat degradation, pollution, poisoning by lead shot, and over-fishing. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.
3600-3800 mature individuals
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Land-mass type - oceanic island - Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally they have never been connected to a continental area by a land-ridge, and are volcanic in origin.
Realm - Palearctic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Freshwater biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome
Raptors MOU - Species listed under annex 1 of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia