Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species has suffered rapid population reductions across most of its range owing to the loss, degradation and fragmentation of its habitat, as well as hunting. Although populations in its Iberian stronghold have stabilised and possibly increased, hunting in Central Asia results in high rates of adult mortality, and land-use changes in eastern Europe, Russia and central Asia may have a significant impact on this species's population and the extent of its remaining habitat, such that it is likely to continue declining at a rapid rate over the next three generations. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable. Should research show the species to be declining at a more moderate rate, it would warrant downlisting to a lower category of threat.
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Realm - Palearctic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome