The Ilhéus do Rombo, situated north-east of the island of Brava, consist of two main islets of low elevation, Ilhéu Grande (3 km²) and Ilhéu de Cima (1.5 km²), and several smaller rocks and stacks. All are barren or almost so, and only the larger islets support scattered, sparse, grassy vegetation. The group is uninhabited, but Ilhéu Grande has been used by goat-farmers and whalers in the past. Ilhéu de Cima is famous for its seabird colonies, but no seabirds breed on Ilhéu Grande, although there must have been large colonies once, as thick layers of guano are present.
See Box and Table 2 for key species. The most abundant breeding species on Ilhéu de Cima is Pelagodroma marina (several thousand burrows in 1989) followed, in numerical order, by Puffinus (assimilis) boydi, Oceanodroma castro and Bulweria bulwerii. The large numbers of Sula leucogaster and Phaethon aethereus (1,000s and 100s respectively) reported 100 years ago have declined dramatically, due to excessive human predation. In 1986–1990 there were only 50 pairs of S. leucogaster and 5–10 pairs of P. aethereus remaining. Little is known of the birds breeding on the rocks and stacks; some (e.g. Ilhéu Luiz Carneiro) are known to hold small numbers of O. castro, S. leucogaster and P. aethereus. Among landbirds, Ilhéu de Cima is a breeding site of the rare endemic Falco (peregrinus) madens, of which nests were found in the mid-1960s. The total population is not thought to exceed 15–20 pairs.
Non-bird biodiversity: Turtles (species undetermined) are known to lay on the small, sandy beaches of Ilhéu de Cima.
BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Ilhéus do Rombo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/06/2019.