Guadalquivir marshes This is an IBA in Danger! 

Country/territory: Spain

IBA criteria met: A1, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 (2011)
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Area: 252,058 ha

IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
2016 not assessed very high medium
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Site description (2000 baseline)
One of the largest wetlands in Europe, at the mouth of the River Guadalquivir. In the north and east natural vegetation has been replaced with rice cultivation, irrigated cultivation, aquaculture, and saltpans, although there are still expanses of halophytic scrub. Marshes, Mediterranean scrub, woodland and sand-dunes occur to the south. The marshes are flooded only seasonally with some permanent rivers and lagoons. The main human activities include arable agriculture, cattle-grazing, hunting, fishing, fish-farming, research, apiculture (`Other' land-use, below) and tourism.

Key biodiversity
The most important wetland in Spain for breeding, passage and wintering waterbirds and passerines. Over 360 species have been recorded. Wintering waterbird numbers reach 400,000 individuals climbing to over 6 million birds during migration periods. The site is a major migratory bottleneck, where more than 20,000 storks and raptors regularly pass. Species of global conservation concern that do not meet IBA criteria: Aythya nyroca (wintering).

Raptors MOU - IBA listed under Table 3 of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Guadalquivir marshes. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.