|Altitude||0 - 1500 m|
This EBA embraces the temperate forest zone of southern South America, mainly in southern Chile but also in extreme western Argentina. The northern limits of these forests are at the Bío Bío river on the Pacific coast and further inland north along the Andes, the boundary marking the beginning of an extensive region characterized by a Mediterranean climate of hot, dry summers and wetter, mild winters (see EBA 060). In this EBA there is c.2,000 mm of rainfall annually and 40 days of rain during the summer in the central part at Puerto Montt (Stone 1992).
Immediately south of the Bío Bío river, and south to Valdivia, Nothofagus forest (comprising deciduous species such as N . obliqua and N. procera) is dominant, and further inland on the Andean slopes at this latitude the forest is dominated by Araucaria araucana, with also some Nothofagus and Podocar
All the restricted-range species are forest-dwellers, many apparently occurring in secondary forest and forests fragmented among cultivation. Columba araucana, Enicognathus leptorhynchus and Eugralla paradoxa do not occur as far south as Pteroptochos tarnii and Scelorchilus rubecula; in fact E. paradoxa is shared with Central Chile (EBA 060), also occurring in the semi-humid sclerophyllous forests in the southern part of that EBA. Both C. araucana and E. leptorhynchus wander widely north into the Central Chilean region outside the breeding season and also occur in cultivated areas, where in certain parts they are considered to be agricultural pests.
|Species||IUCN Red List category|
|Chilean Pigeon (Patagioenas araucana)||LC|
|Slender-billed Parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus)||LC|
|Black-throated Huet-huet (Pteroptochos tarnii)||LC|
|Chucao Tapaculo (Scelorchilus rubecula)||LC|
|Ochre-flanked Tapaculo (Eugralla paradoxa)||LC|
|Country||IBA Name||IBA Book Code|
|Argentina||Extensión Límite Este y Sur del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi||AR233|
|Argentina||Lago La Plata - Fontana||AR243|
|Argentina||Nahuel Huapi National Park and Reserve||AR231|
|Argentina||Parque Nacional Lago Puelo - Parque Provincial Río Turbio||AR236|
|Argentina||Parque Nacional Lanín||AR228|
|Argentina||Parque Nacional Los Alerces y Laguna Terraplén||AR238|
|Argentina||Parque Nacional Los Glaciares y adyacencias (Estancias El Sosiego, La Soledad y Anita)||AR254|
|Chile||Bahía San Pedro|
|Chile||Corredor Biológico Nevados de Chillán-Laguna del Laja||CL050|
|Chile||Estero del Salto Valley|
|Chile||Ibañez River Valley|
|Chile||Laguna San Rafael National Park|
|Chile||Monumento Natural Cerro Ñielol||CL064|
|Chile||Monumento Natural Contulmo||CL059|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Alerce Andino||CL073|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Chiloé||CL089|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Conguillio||CL065|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Huerquehue||CL066|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Puyehue||CL071|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales||CL072|
|Chile||Parque Nacional Villarica||CL067|
|Chile||Reserva Nacional Nonguén||CL056|
Intensive logging and timber plantations are especially severe threats to the EBA, and other threats include firewood-gathering and, in the southern part of the EBA, overgrazing from domestic animals and introduced rabbits (Dinerstein et al. 1995). Large areas of old-growth forest have already been lost to logging concessions, and the industry is still active.
However, none of the restricted-range species is currently considered threatened, although two are judged to be Near Threatened. Columba araucana populations were decimated in the 1950s by an epidemic of Newcastle disease (Johnson 1967), but the species has recovered well and is again fairly common.
There are a high number of protected areas throughout the EBA. Indeed, most of its southern end is covered by very large national reserves and national parks, especially part of Katalalixar (6,745 km2) and Laguna San Rafael (17,420 km2).
BirdLife International (2023) Endemic Bird Areas factsheet: Chilean temperate forests. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/eba/factsheet/76 on 24/09/2023.