VU
Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable D1
2016 Endangered D
2013 Endangered D
2012 Endangered D
2010 Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,300 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000 good observed 2019
Population trend Increasing good observed -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.9 - - -

Population justification: From the initial 81 individuals that were rediscovered in 1999, the species increased to 2,600 individuals in 2019, which include at least 1,000 mature individuals (Salaman et al. 2019).

Trend justification: Once abundant across its range, habitat loss and subsequent lack of nest site availability as well as hunting led to it almost becoming extinct by the end of the 20th century (Salaman et al. 2019). The species has not been recorded in Ecuador since the 1990s, and only in 1997 a small flock was rediscovered in Colombia (Krabbe and Sornoza 1996, Salaman et al. 1999a). Since then, intense conservation efforts caused an exceptional recovery and increase in population size. From an initial 81 individuals in 1999, the species increased to 1,100 individuals in 2010, to 1,400 individuals in 2013 and to 2,600 individuals in 2019 (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2010, Salaman et al. 2019). Despite the overall positive trend, local declines are observed in the population at Cubarral, which decreased from 70 individuals counted in 2009 to less than ten individuals counted in 2020 (Fundación ProAves in litt. 2020).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Bosques Montanos del Sur de Antioquia
Colombia Cañón del Río Combeima
Colombia Cuenca del Río Toche
Colombia Munchique Natural National Park and southern extension
Colombia Alto Quindío
Colombia Reservas Comunitarias de Roncesvalles
Ecuador El Ángel - Cerro Golondrinas and surrounding areas
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas y alrededores
Ecuador Río Toachi-Chiriboga
Ecuador Territorio Étnico Awá y alrededores
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guácharos
Colombia La Planada Natural Reserve
Colombia Puracé Natural National Park
Colombia Serranía de las Minas
Colombia Cafetales de Támesis
Colombia Sumapaz Natural National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1200 - 3400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) No decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ognorhynchus icterotis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2022.