VU
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4bd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A4bd
2016 Vulnerable A4bd
2012 Vulnerable A4bd
2010 Vulnerable A4b,d
2008 Vulnerable A4b,d
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2003 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 128,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,900 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 20100 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 23.3 - - -

Population justification:

In 1998, the total annual breeding population was estimated at 8,500 pairs, equivalent to c. 28,000 mature individuals (Gales 1998). However, current estimates are 1,553 pairs on South Georgia (Georgias del Sur) (Poncet et al. 2006), 1,800 pairs on Prince Edward Island (2008, Ryan et al. 2009), c. 1,900 pairs on Marion Island (2013, ACAP 2009), c. 340 pairs on Iles Crozet (CNRS Chinzè Monitoring Database 2010), c. 354 pairs in Iles Kerguelen (CNRS Chinzè Monitoring Database 2011), and 4 pairs on Macquarie Island (DPIWPE 2010, unpublished data), making a total of c. 6,000 annual breeding pairs. Using the same ratio as Gales (1998) for estimating the number of mature individuals, this would equate to approximately 20,100 mature individuals.

Trend justification: At South Georgia, this species has declined by 1.8% per annum over the past 20 years, and there has been an acceleration in the rate of decrease to over 4% per annum since 1997 (Poncet et al. 2006). Overall, the South Georgian population has declined by 30% between 1984-2004 (Poncet et al. 2006), and by 18% between 2004 and 2015 (A. Wolfaardt in litt. 2016). On Bird Island, adult and post-fledging survival has decreased since the mid 1980s (British Antarctic Survey, unpublished data). On the Crozet Islands, the population stabilised following rapid declines during 1970-1986, but is now declining again (Weimerskirch et al. 1997, Delord et al. 2008). Low juvenile recruitment is believed to be delaying recovery (Weimerskirch et al. 2006). On the Prince Edward Islands, the population is now stable (Nel et al. 2002b, 2002c, Crawford et al. 2003, Ryan et al. 2003, 2009). Overall declines are estimated to exceed 30% over 70 years. However, the long generation time of this species makes it difficult to determine the most appropriate trend period for predicting population trends into the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia V Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
High Seas N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan V Extant
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Réunion (to France) V Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Tonga U Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons
French Southern Territories Îles des Apôtres
French Southern Territories Péninsule Courbet
French Southern Territories Baie Larose
French Southern Territories Péninsule Rallier du Baty
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny
French Southern Territories Îles Leygues
French Southern Territories Île Foch, Île Sainte Lanne Gramont and Île Howe
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
Argentina San Antonio Oeste
Argentina Sistema Península de Valdés
Argentina Isla de los Estados, Islas de Año Nuevo e islotes adyacentes
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur
Uruguay Atlantic Ocean and Rio de la Plata mouth
Australia Macquarie Island
New Zealand North Eastern North Island (offshore)
New Zealand Fiordland - West Coast South Island (South) (offshore)
Atlantic (Antarctic) Test
New Zealand Bounty-Antipodes Plateau Marine IBA
New Zealand East Coast North Island (offshore)
New Zealand Chatham (offshore)
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Atlantic, Southwest 2 - Marine
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Atlantic, Southwest 9 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 8 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 20 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 21 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 22 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 27 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 28 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 29 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 1 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 33 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 3 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 5 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 23 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 6 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 7 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 8 - Marine
Chile Pacific, Southeast 9 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 46 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Shag Rocks - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 1 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 9 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 48 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 5 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 4 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 6 - Marine
St Helena (to UK) Atlantic, Southeast 3 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southeast 29 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 1 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 1 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 2 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 47 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 6 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 7 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Western 69 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 8 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 9 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Western 4 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 10 - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 11 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 12 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 13 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 14 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 5 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 6 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 7 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 8 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 9 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 10 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 11 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 48 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 16 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 17 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 49 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 50 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 71 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 18 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 51 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 12 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 13 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 15 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 16 - Marine
French Southern Territories Islands of the Golfe du Morbihan - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 19 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 22 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 23 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 24 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 25 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 26 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 27 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 28 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 29 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 30 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 31 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 32 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 33 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 34 - Marine
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 37 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 17 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 19 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 20 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 25 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Eastern 22 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Eastern 1 - Marine
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve - Marine
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons / Îles des Apôtres - Marine
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession / Île de l'Est - Marine
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins - Marine
South Africa Indian Ocean, Western 26 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 40 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 27 - Marine
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 42 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Antarctic and Southern 44 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 47 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Antarctic 21 - Marine
Australia Maatsuyker Island Group, Port Davey Islands / Pedra Branca - Marine
Australia Indian Ocean, Eastern 6 - Marine
Australia Indian Ocean, Eastern 11 - Marine
Australia Indian Ocean, Eastern 12 - Marine
Australia Indian Ocean, Eastern 13 - Marine
Australia Indian Ocean, Eastern 14 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 2 - Marine
Australia Pacific, Southwest 4 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 10 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 11 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 12 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 13 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 14 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 53 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 54 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 55 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 56 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 57 - Marine
New Zealand Pacific, Southwest 59 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 39 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 41 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 44 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 66 - Marine
New Zealand East Coast South Island (offshore)
New Zealand Kaikoura (offshore)
Argentina Talud Patagonia Norte
Argentina Talud Agujero Azul
Argentina Isla de los Estados
Argentina Yaganes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia 1 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia 2 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 51 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 52 - Marine
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Atlantic, Southwest 53 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 54 - Marine
Argentina Atlantic, Southwest 55 - Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Diomedea exulans. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2020.