Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 26,900,000-38,100,000 pairs, which equates to 53,800,000-76,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 107,000,000-153,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).
This species breeds in woodland edges, open woodland, cleared woodland and young conifer plantations, often with isolated remaining tall trees. It also uses heathland or grassland with developing scrub and trees. The breeding season occurs from April to August in north-west Europe and May to the end of July in India. It is largely monogamous, however polygamy does occasionally occur. The nest is built in a depression in the ground and is a substantial cup of dry grass, often with moss foundation, lined with finer grasses. Normally four to six eggs are laid. The diet includes a variety of invertebrates but is mostly insects. Some plant material is also taken during the winter. Tree Pipit is a long-distance migrant with western populations migrating to the Afrotropics and eastern populations moving to the Indian subcontinent (Tyler 2016).
Local declines have been attributed to the changing nature of its habitats, such as in northern and central Europe where aging plantations become increasingly unsuitable for the species but it will quickly recolonize when mature stands are felled (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). There are no apparent threats in the African wintering areas (Tyler 2016).
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within Europe.
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ashpole, J, Symes, A., Ekstrom, J.
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Anthus trivialis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017.