VU
Southern Bald Ibis Geronticus calvus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C1+2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable A3c+4c;C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A3c+4c;C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable A3c; C2a(ii)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 257,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-4000 good estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: Henderson (2015) estimated a total population of 6,500-8,000 birds, including c.1,650-2,000 breeding pairs i.e. 3,300-4,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: South African populations may have increased between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, but the Lesotho population may be declining. Overall, the species's population is suspected to have decreased at a moderate rate because of habitat loss and degradation. Population declines are projected to occur in the future if current rates of habitat loss continue and due to climate change.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lesotho Liqobong
Lesotho Upper Senqu River
Lesotho Mafika - Lisiu
Lesotho Sehonghong and Matebeng
Lesotho Sehlabathebe National Park
Lesotho Upper Quthing Valley
Eswatini Malolotja Nature Reserve
Eswatini Mahamba Mountain
South Africa Blyde River Canyon
South Africa Mac-Mac Escarpment and Forests
South Africa Kaapsehoop
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Songimvelo Nature Reserve
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Grasslands
South Africa Sterkfontein/Merinodal
South Africa Voordeel Conservancy
South Africa Alexpan
South Africa Ingula Nature Reserve
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Rooiberge-Riemland
South Africa Ithala Game Reserve
South Africa Mkuzi Game Reserve
South Africa Chelmsford Nature Reserve
South Africa Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Umvoti Vlei
South Africa Hlatikulu
South Africa Impendle Nature Reserve
South Africa KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Grasslands
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve
South Africa Palaborwa
South Africa Northern Eastern Cape
South Africa Southern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Northern Drakensberg foothills
South Africa Greater Itala complex (ZA)
South Africa Oribi Gorge - Mbumbazi complex
South Africa Ethekwini south
South Africa Lower Tugela River valley
South Africa Ngoye coastal complex
South Africa Umzimkulu complex
South Africa Mistbelt grasslands
South Africa Midlands
South Africa Greater Greytown complex
South Africa Lower Mooi River valley
South Africa Nkandla complex
South Africa Melmoth grasslands
South Africa Pondoland North Coast
Eswatini Big Bend - Manzini - Hlathikulu
Eswatini Nkomati valley
South Africa Melmoth
South Africa Opathe Imfolozi link
South Africa Hluhluwe - Mkhuze lowveld
South Africa Pongola - Magudu
Eswatini Greater Itala complex (SZ)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 1000 - 2900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Air-borne pollutants - Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Geronticus calvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.