VU
Southern Bald Ibis Geronticus calvus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C1+2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable A3c+4c;C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A3c+4c;C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable A3c; C2a(ii)
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 257,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-4000 good estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: Henderson (2015) estimated a total population of 6,500-8,000 birds, including c.1,650-2,000 breeding pairs i.e. 3,300-4,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: South African populations may have increased between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, but the Lesotho population may be declining. Overall, the species's population is suspected to have decreased at a moderate rate because of habitat loss and degradation. Population declines are projected to occur in the future if current rates of habitat loss continue and due to climate change.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Lesotho N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Swaziland N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Lesotho Liqobong
Lesotho Mafika - Lisiu
Lesotho Sehlabathebe National Park
Lesotho Sehonghong and Matebeng
Lesotho Upper Quthing Valley
Lesotho Upper Senqu River
South Africa Alexpan
South Africa Amersfoort - Bethal - Carolina District
South Africa Chrissie Pans
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park
South Africa Hlatikulu
South Africa Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park
South Africa Impendle Nature Reserve
South Africa Ingula Nature Reserve
South Africa Ithala Game Reserve
South Africa Kaapsehoop
South Africa Maloti Drakensberg Park
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve
South Africa Rooiberge-Riemland
South Africa Songimvelo Nature Reserve
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve
South Africa Umvoti Vlei
Swaziland Mahamba Mountain
Swaziland Malolotja Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude 1000 - 2900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Air-borne pollutants Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Geronticus calvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2019.