LC
Siberian Tit Poecile cinctus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population to number 2,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,170,000-1,950,000 pairs, which equates to 2,340,000-3,890,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 15,600,000-25,950,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population is estimated to be in decline following recorded decreases and range contractions, perhaps owing to habitat management practices and climate change (del Hoyo et al. 2007). The European population trend is estimated to be decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Ecology

This species is restricted to northern boreal areas where it occurs as far north as the northern forest limit (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It is found in areas of lowland conifer forest, which is mostly of old-growth spruce (Picea) but also larch (Larix) and pine (Pinus), especially in areas with dead or decaying trees. In southern and eastern Siberia it is also found in submontane and montane birch (Betula) forests, riverine forest and adjacent birches and willow (Salix) thickets running through conifer forests. North of the tree-line and tundra edge it also occurs in dwarf and mature willows along rivers and creeks, and in montane areas on alpine heath. In the non-breeding season it is found in similar habitat as well as in alders (Alnus) and aspens (Populus tremula) and may also be found in dwarf scrub including Labrador tea (Ledum palustre). The species breeds from May to July and is monogamous. The nest is a platform of decaying wood, moss, grass stems and animal hair or fur, in a hole in a rotting tree trunk or stump; however it will use nestboxes as well. Clutches can be from four to eleven eggs. The diet is made up mainly of small invertebrates, but it will also consume seeds and scraps from bird tables or refuse scraps. The species is sedentary, remaining within territories all year; juveniles are more nomadic (Gosler and Clement 2007).

Threats

The species declined in Finland and probably Sweden too due to large-scale clearfelling during World War II and has suffered from habitat fragmentation. Modern forestry practices remove dead and dying trees and the species suffers poor nesting success in heavily managed forests (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). Climatic changes may also negatively affect its habitat. In severe winters it is often entirely reliant on food provided at human settlements (Gosler and Clement 2007).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. In the extreme north of the species's range during severe winters it survives only by complete dependence on food provided at human settlements (Gosler and Clement 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Forest management practices should be encouraged to leave dead and dying trees. Restoration of suitable forest would also minimize fragmentation.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Poecile cinctus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2017.