Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 95,200,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 330,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.5 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.20,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.40,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c. 400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan (China); c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin U Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia U Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) U Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros U Extant
Congo V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic U Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador U Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gambia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada U Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau V Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti V Extant
Honduras U Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica U Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar U Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau U Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant
Portugal N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles U Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea V Extant
Spain N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan U Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden N Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China U Extant
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste U Extant
Togo V Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey V Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam U Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) U Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
France Littoral Augeron
Germany Wagbach lowlands
France Bonne Anse
Canada Placentia Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Spain Costa da Morte
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
USA Bering Sea Shelf 168W62N
USA Beaufort Sea Shelf Edge 152W71N
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Bering Sea Shelf 169W60N
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
USA Icy Cape Marine
Norway Slettnes
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Stercorarius pomarinus. Downloaded from on 10/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/04/2020.