Javan Pied Starling Gracupica jalla


Justification of Red List category
The newly split species has almost completely disappeared from the wild within the past few decades, from which is inferred a very rapid population decline due to trapping for the cage bird trade. Any remaining wild population is estimated to be very small, and the interbreeding in captivity of this species and G. contra leaves considerable doubt over the continuing existence of wild populations of G. jalla on Java and perhaps anywhere.
For these reasons the species is evaluated as Critically Endangered.

Population justification
The newly split species has almost completely disappeared from the wild within the past few decades, a decline that has gone largely unnoticed due to the species previously being included with the widespread G. contra. Wild populations are thought to have gone extinct on Sumatra sometime between 1990 and 2000, had been reduced by 2010 to a tiny remnant in a remote area of central Java (known from trapped birds) and a small population on Bali that may be derived from escapes (Eaton et al. 2015).

Trend justification
The wild population on Java may have been lost within the past few years, with recent records appearing to relate to small numbers of escaped or released birds. The large numbers being supplied to the market by commercial breeders are not readily distinguished from wild-sourced birds as the practice of using closed rings is very rare and not enforced at the point of sale (S. Chng in litt. 2016).

Distribution and population

The species is known from Java and Bali, and formerly from Lampung province in east Sumatra, Indonesia.


Considered to have been similar to G. contra, a bird of open habitats with scattered trees, especially agricultural areas with wet ground and often associated with human habitation (Craig et al. 2016).


Large numbers, apparently of this taxon, are being bred in commercial bird farms in central Java to supply the trade. However, imports of other taxa into Java and apparent mixing of these in captivity seem likely to have reduced the likelihood there being a source of G. jalla stock for conservation breeding (Collar et al. 2012, Eaton et al. 2015)

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
It is not known to occur in any protected areas but key sites have been identified.

Research Proposed
Surveys of locations where wild populations may persist are required urgently.


Text account compilers
Wheatley, H., Westrip, J., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Martin, R

Eaton, J., Chng, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Gracupica jalla. Downloaded from on 04/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/03/2024.