Indian Vulture Gyps indicus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Rasmussen, P. C.; Parry, S. J. 2001. The taxonomic status of the Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus. Vulture News 44: 18-21.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2bce+4bce A2bce+4bce A2bce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce
2016 Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce
2015 Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce
2013 Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce
2012 Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce
2010 Critically Endangered A2b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2009 Critically Endangered A2b,c,e; A4b,c,e
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2002 Critically Endangered
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 5515 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,150,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 30000 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 97 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.3 - - -

Population justification: A population estimate of c.45,000 individuals has been extrapolated from 2007 survey results published by Prakash et al. (2007), who recorded 337 individuals along 18,000 km of road transects. This very roughly equates to 30,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Survey results indicate that declines throughout the Indian Subcontinent probably began in the 1990s and were extremely rapid, resulting in an overall population decline of greater than 97% over a 10-15 year period.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Nepal V Extant
Pakistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
India Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and Godavari estuary
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve)
India Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary
India Namdapha - Kamlang
India Bherjan-Borajan-Podumoni Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Chakrashila Complex
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Dum Duma, Dangori and Kumsong Reserve Forests
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Tirap - Burhidihing
India Upper Dihing (West) Complex
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gomarda Wildlife Sanctuary
India Indravati National Park and Tiger Reserve
India Udanti and Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuaries
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Carambolim Wetlands
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Rampura Grassland
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sultanpur National Park
India Bannerghatta National Park
India Bhimgad Forests
India Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and Hills
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
India Kemmangundi and Bababudan Hills
India Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nandi Hills
India Ramanagara Reserve Forest
India Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands
India INS - Shivaji and adjoining areas, Lonavla
India Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Navegaon National Park
India Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park
India Taloda Reserve Forest
India Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary
India Toranmal Reserve Forest
India Bandhavgarh National Park
India Bori Wildlife Sanctuary
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Halali Reservoir
India Kanha National Park
India Madhav National Park
India Panna National Park
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Chandaka - Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary
India Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary
India Simlipal National Park
India Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary
India Desert National Park
India Diyatra Closed Area
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Khichan
India Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota)
India Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary
India Ramsagar Lake
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve
India Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sambhar Lake
India Sareri Bandh
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Sei Dam reservoir and surrounding environs
India Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sonkhaliya Closed Area
India Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bagdarrah Closed Area
India Mudumalai National Park
India Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Dudhwa National Park
India Narora
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Asan Barrage
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area
India Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex
India Jaisamand Lake and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Guru Ghasidas Tiger Reserve
India Dighal wetland
India Megamalai Mountains
India Sardar Samand Lake
India Kharda Dam
India Jor Beer
India Mahaveer Swami Wildlife Sanctuary (Lalitpur)
India Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary
India Badopal Lake
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Karnala Bird Sanctuary
India Mahendri Reserve Forest
India Hatnur Dam
India Nikol-Samadhiyala-Malan Wetlands Complex
India Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
India North Karanpura Valley
India Tilaiya Dam
India Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary and Maniyari Reservoir
India Amboli-Tilari Reserve Forest
India Chandoli National Park
India Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary
India Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Gyps indicus. Downloaded from on 29/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 29/11/2021.