House Sparrow Passer domesticus


Taxonomic note
Passer domesticus and P. italiae (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as P. domesticus following AERC TAC (2003); AOU (1998 and supplements); Christidis and Boles (2008); Cramp et al. (1977-1994); Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993); SACC (2005 and updates); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996); Turbott (1990).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 24 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 68,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 75,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 896000000-1310000000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -

Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population at > c.540,000,000 individuals. However, the European population is estimated at 134,000,000-196,000,000 pairs, which equates to 269,000,000-392,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 896,000,000-1,310,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population sizes have been estimated at c.100-100,000 breeding pairs in China and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) I Extant Yes
Argentina I Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas I Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize I Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) I Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bolivia I Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Brazil I Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory I Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Chile I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia I Extant Yes
Comoros I Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Costa Rica I Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba I Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic I Extant Yes
Ecuador I Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador I Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini I Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) I Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala I Extant Yes
Haiti I Extant Yes
Honduras I Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jamaica I Extant Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho I Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malawi I Extant Yes
Maldives I Extant Yes
Mauritius I Extant Yes
Mexico I Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) I Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
Nicaragua I Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama I Extant Yes
Paraguay I Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) I Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal I Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles I Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands I Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) I Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania I Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay I Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vanuatu I Extant Yes
Venezuela I Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Poland Pisz forest
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
France Marais de Sacy
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Western Weinviertel
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Lebanon Lower Damour River
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Klein Curaçao, Curaçao
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Passer domesticus. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/02/2023.