EN
Hawaiian Petrel Pterodroma sandwichensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3bce+4bce A3bce+4bce; B2ab(v); C1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A3bce+4bce
2016 Vulnerable B2ab(iv,v)
2012 Vulnerable B2ab(iv,v)
2010 Vulnerable B2a+b(iv,v)
2008 Vulnerable B2a+b(iv,v)
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 434 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 370 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 7500-16600 medium estimated 1995
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19.8 - - -

Population justification: Spear et al. (1995) give a best estimate of 3,750-4,500 breeding pairs based on at-sea surveys. This roughly equates to 7,500-9,000 mature individuals, and 11,250-13,500 individuals in total. The discovery of possibly several thousand birds breeding on Lana'i during terrestrial surveys in 2006-2007 and two small colonies on West Maui (J. Penniman in litt. 2007), probably in the tens or low hundreds of birds (D. Ainley in litt. 2007), may bring the estimated breeding population close to the upper estimate of 6,500-8,300 pairs calculated by Spear et al. (1995). However, the rapid decline in at least the population on Kaua'i would suggest that the population size may now in fact be smaller than this. Given uncertainty regarding overall trends, the upper and lower bounds from Spear et al. (1995) are used here, i.e. 3,750-8,300 pairs, or 7,500-16,600 mature individuals.

Trend justification: A standard population monitoring technique has not yet been fully developed for use across colonies and survey sites. However, efforts are underway among collaborating scientists to standardize metrics and procedures, so that population trends can be monitored more effectively on each of the islands. Pterodroma sandwichensis is suspected to have declined severely for the past few centuries, owing primarily to predation by introduced species at nesting colonies and urbanization (D. Ainley in litt. 2007), as well as collisions with utility structures and power lines. On Kaua'i, the population has declined by as much as 78% between 1993 and 2013 (Raine et al. 2017), but the rate of subpopulation decline probably varies considerably, and as such the overall trend is difficult to quantify. Assuming that, apart from the population on Kaua'i, all other subpopulations are overall stable, the ongoing global rate of decline would be c.19-42.5% over three generations (59.4 years), depending on the proportion of the overall population previously found on Kaua'i. Terrestrial and at-sea threats are likely to impact all subpopulations though, so they are all likely in decline (A. Raine in litt. 2018). If all subpopulations were declining at the same rate as on Kaua'i, the reduction over three generations could even reach as high as 99%. In the absence of evidence from other subpopulations, the overall ongoing rate of decline is tentatively placed here in the range 50-79% over three generations, and is suspected to continue into the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
French Polynesia U Extant
Indonesia V Extant
Japan V Extant
Kiribati U Extant
Philippines V Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) U Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Lana`ihale
USA Molokai Forests
USA Haleakala
USA Kauai Forests and Uplands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Altitude 850 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Axis axis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bos taurus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Herpestes auropunctatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis aries Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Psidium cattleianum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus exulans Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus norvegicus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Tyto alba Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Pterodroma sandwichensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.