VU
Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3cd+4cd A3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable A3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-250000 medium estimated 2021
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 27-57,27-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 27-57,27-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 20 - - -

Population justification: The species is generally rare throughout its range. It has a very large territory and is patchily distributed (Thiollay 1989). In Brazil, it is most common in Amazonia, and rare in the Atlantic forest (Banhos et al. 2018). It is now very scarce in Mexico (A. Monroy-Ojeda in litt. 2021) and in Costa Rica (C. Sánchez in litt. 2021).

Records for the area occupied by one breeding pair include 45-79 km2 in Venezuela, 10-20 km2 in Panama (Alvarez-Cordero 1996), 43 kmin Peru (Piana 2007), 47.8 km2 and 19.6 (+/- 5.7) km2 in Ecuador (Muñiz-López 2008, 2016), and 14-16 km2 in Panama (Vargas González and Vargas 2011). In the arc of deforestation in Mato Grosso, Brazil, the species was recorded at a nest density of 1.97–4.84 nests/100 km2 of forest habitat, or 0.79–3.07 nests/100 km2 where deforested areas were included in the calculation (Miranda et al. 2021a).

National population size estimates have included 1,000-2,000 mature individuals in French Guiana (MNHN, UICN France and GEPOG 2018), 5,000-10,000 individuals (roughly equivalent to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals) in Peru (Piana 2018) and 806-1,208 pairs (equivalent to 1,612-2,416 mature individuals) in Panama, which was thought likely to be an overestimate (Vargas González and Vargas 2011).

Based on the minimum and median of the above density estimates for Panama, the estimated area of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover within the mapped range in 2020 (below 310 m and total: approximately 76,700 km2 and 108,000 km2; Global Forest Watch 2021), the population size in Central America is inferred to be within the range of 11,000-22,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 7,600-15,000 mature individuals.
Based on the minimum and median of the above density estimates for Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil, the estimated area of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover within the mapped range in 2020 (below 310 m and total: approximately 4,380,000 km2 and 6,027,000 km2; Global Forest Watch 2021), the population size in South America is inferred to be within the range of 160,000-421,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 110,000-281,000 mature individuals.

The global population size is therefore tentatively estimated to fall within the range 118,000-225,000 mature individuals. Hunting and selective logging are likely to have depleted population densities across large parts of the species's range, so the true population size may be lower; to account for uncertainty, the population size is here placed in the band 100,000-250,000 mature individuals.

Genetic analysis in Brazil suggested a single subpopulation in the country (Banhos et al. 2016), so the species is suspected to have a single subpopulation.

Trend justification: From 2001 to 2020, approximately 8% of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover was lost from within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2021). Assuming that the annual area of forest loss remains constant and extrapolating forwards, approximately 27% is projected to be lost over three generations (60 years) from 2020. The rate of deforestation within the species's range appeared to be particularly high over 2016-2017 (Global Forest Watch 2021). If the 2016-2020 rate of deforestation were to continue over three generations, a loss of 38% may be projected.
  
Although the Harpy Eagle appears to be fairly tolerant of degraded forest and human-modified landscapes (Alverez-Cordero 1996; Aguiar-Silva 2016; Bowler et al. 2020), it is unable to tolerate landscapes with less than 50% forest cover remaining (Miranda et al. 2021a) and does not usually cross forest gaps of more than c.500 m (Aguiar-Silva 2016). Furthermore, the species's preference for very large trees as nest sites potentially makes it susceptible to selective logging (Miranda et al. 2020). The species's population size therefore can be assumed to be declining as its forest habitat is lost. Additionally, the species is subject to hunting and persecution across much of its range, which may have a greater impact on the species's population size than deforestation in some areas (E. Miranda in litt. 2021; A. Monroy-Ojeda in litt. 2021). The species is thought to be locally or regionally extinct in large parts of its former range, likely as a result of deforestation and hunting.
Assuming that the species's population size declines at at least the same rate that its habitat is lost, and that hunting and persecution may cause an additional decline of up to 50% of the rate of tree cover loss, the species's population size is suspected to decline by 27-57% over the next three generations (60 years) from 2020. Based on the available information, the best estimate of the rate of decline is considered most likely to fall below 50% over the next three generations. The percentage population size reduction over the past three generations is not known.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
El Salvador N Extinct Yes
French Guiana N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Madidi
Bolivia Noel Kempff Mercado
Bolivia Reserva de Inmovilización Iténez
Bolivia Reserva Nacional Amazónica Manuripi Heath
Colombia Eco-parque Los Besotes
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos
Colombia Reserva Regional Bajo Cauca Nechí
Ecuador Gran Yasuní
Ecuador Territorio Achuar
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé
Peru Cuenca Río Nanay
Peru Manu
Peru Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul
Peru Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria
Peru Río Orosa
Peru Alto Purus
Venezuela Parque Nacional Canaima
Venezuela Parque Nacional Duida-Marahuaca
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Reserva Forestal Imataca
Venezuela Campamento Junglaven
Venezuela Parque Nacional Mariusa-Delta del Orinoco
Venezuela Parque Nacional Parima-Tapirapecó
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá
Venezuela Parque Nacional San Esteban
Venezuela Parque Nacional Serranía La Neblina
Venezuela Monumento Natural Tepui Guaiquinima
Peru Los Amigos
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría
Ecuador Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno
Ecuador Bajo Napo
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete
Panama Darién National Park
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
Panama La Amistad International Park
Nicaragua San Juan River - La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria
Nicaragua Indio Maíz
Nicaragua Bosawas
Nicaragua Punta Gorda
Argentina Parque Provincial Urugua-í
Argentina Sierra Morena
Argentina Cuenca del Piray Miní
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Piray Guazú
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí
Belize Rio Bravo CMA Gallon Jug Estate
Belize Maya Mountains and southern reserves
Brazil Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque
Brazil Serra dos Carajás
Brazil Arquipélago de Anavilhanas
Brazil Mamirauá
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães e Adjacências
Brazil Estação Ecológica Serra das Araras
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Rio Capim
Brazil Parque Nacional da Amazônia
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo
Brazil Vale do Guaporé
Brazil Ji-Paraná / Roosevelt
Brazil Campinas e Várzeas do Rio Branco
Brazil Parque Nacional do Jaú
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural SESC Pantanal e Entorno
Brazil Serra do Tabuleiro State Park
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia
Brazil Parque Estadual do Cantão
Colombia Estación Biológica Mosiro-Itajura
Honduras Rio Platano
Honduras Tawahka
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca
Suriname Bakhuys mountains
Suriname Centraal Suriname Nature Reserve (CSNR)
Suriname Grensgebergte/Toemoek-hoemak
Suriname Kabalebo / Arapahu
Brazil Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais e Entorno
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e Entorno
Brazil Reserva Biológica do Rio Trombetas
French Guiana Parc Amazonien de Guyane et Saül
French Guiana Nouragues
French Guiana Trinité
Peru Tambopata
Peru Bahuaja-Sonene
Guyana Kwara / Aruka River
Guyana Maparri - Kanuku Mountains
Colombia Serranía de las Minas
Brazil Saltos das Andorinhas e de Dardanelos
Colombia Gaoyá - Leguízamo
Mexico Los Tuxtlas
Mexico Montes Azules
Guyana Iwokrama
Colombia Paramillo Natural National Park
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Savanna Moist marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Other (free text) - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Wearing apparel, accessories - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Harpia harpyja. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.