CR
Grenada Dove Leptotila wellsi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 136-182 good estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.71 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 136-182 mature individuals (Rivera-Milán et al. 2015).
The population structure has not been assessed. While the species's two strongholds around Mt Hartman National Park and on the Perseverance and adjacent Woodford estates are separated by 9 km of highly converted habitat (Rusk 2017), there are occasional records of single individuals dispersing outside of these areas (Rivera-Milán et al. 2015, Rusk 2017). It is therefore tentatively assumed that the individuals in both areas are able to get in contact, forming just one subpopulation, though this requires confirmation.

Trend justification: The population was estimated at 98-124 mature individuals in 1998, climbing to 182 mature individuals by 2003-2004. Although these figures suggest that the population may have increased between 1998 and 2004, the latter estimate included c. 30 mature individuals discovered in 2003, and increases may reflect an improvement in sampling methods. However, the population declined after category IV hurricane Ivan caused severe damage in 2004, and the three years after the hurricane the population was still 25% below the numbers from 2004, with a maximum of 136 mature individuals (Rusk 2017). In 2013, the population was estimated at 136-182 mature individuals (Rivera-Milán et al. 2015).
While the population appears to have stabilised or even increased over the past three generations (14.1 years; Bird et al. 2020), it shows fluctuations in relation to hurricanes (Baptista et al. 2020). The intensity, and probably the frequency, of hurricanes in the Atlantic are projected to increase with climate change (see e.g., Knutson et al. 2010; Walsh et al. 2016). Therefore, it is inferred that the population is continuing to decline, as the population is deemed unable to recover between events of major reductions caused by hurricanes, in conjunction with other threats.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Grenada N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Grenada Woodlands of Grenada
Grenada Mount Hartman
Grenada Beausejour / Grenville Vale
Grenada Perseverance
Grenada Woodford

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Didelphis marsupialis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Herpestes auropunctatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Air-borne pollutants - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Leptotila wellsi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2022.