CR
Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Jones, A. E. 1916. Gyps tenuirostris (Hodgson), the Himalayan Longbilled Vulture, breeding near Ambala, Punjab. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 24: 358.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2a+4acd; C1 A2a+3cd+4acd; D A2a+3cd+4acd; C1; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd; C1
2017 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd; C1
2016 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd; C1
2015 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd;C1
2013 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd;C1
2012 Critically Endangered A2a+4acd;C1
2011 Critically Endangered A2a,c,d,e; A4a,c,d,e; C1
2008 Endangered C2a(ii)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 12,500,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 47,400,000 km2 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 50-249 mature individuals good estimated 2008
Population trend decreasing medium estimated 1973-2020
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 80-99% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 50-79% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 80-99% - - -
Generation length 15.6 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 6 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: The species's total population was estimated at c. 300 individuals in 2008, indicating that there are probably fewer than 250 mature individuals remaining, hence the population is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Population estimates of c.1,260 individuals in 1969 (Dharmakumarsinhji 1971 in Dutta et al. 2010) and c.300 individuals in 2008 (Dutta et al. 2010) suggest that the species has undergone a decline equivalent to c. 82% over 47 years (estimate of three generations), assuming an exponential trend. The results of population viability analysis (Dutta et al. 2010) lend some support to a predicted decline of over 50% during the next 47 years if no additional conservation actions are taken.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
India extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Pakistan Bijnote Bustard Game Reserve (proposed)
India Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nameri National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Naliya Grassland (Lala Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary)
India Ranebennur Blackbuck Sanctuary
India Jawaharlal Nehru Bustard Sanctuary
India Ozar and adjoining grassland
India Ghatigaon Bustard Sanctuary
India Desert National Park
India Diyatra Closed Area
India Khichan
India Sonkhaliya Closed Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Acacia tortilis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Prosopis juliflora Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Corvus splendens Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Ardeotis nigriceps. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/great-indian-bustard-ardeotis-nigriceps on 23/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 23/02/2024.