Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 20,900,000-31,500,000 pairs, which equates to 41,900,000-63,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.90% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 46,500,000-70,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
In Europe, trends between 1982 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).
This species occurs in lowland to lower montane mosaics of wooded hills with conifers and open country, maquis slopes with pine (Pinus) woods, small stands of cedars (Cedrus), junipers (Juniperus), cypress, European silver fir (Abies alba) and thuja (Thuja). It is also widespread in olive (Olea) and citrus groves, open agricultural areas, tall hedges and windbreaks, orchards, vineyards, plantations, suburban parks, avenues and gardens, ravines and gorges with trees and shrubs. The breeding season runs from February to early August. The nest is sited above ground among the outermost branches in the crown or on a branch against trunk of a bush or tree. It is a small and compact platform of small twigs, plant stems and down, bark strips, roots, grasses, moss, animal hair and feathers. Clutches are three to four eggs. It feeds mainly on seeds, buds, shoots, flowers and small invertebrates (Clement 2016). The species is sedentary to migratory; most birds vacate the northern part of its range, although in some years small numbers remain (Snow and Perrins 1998).
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within its European range.
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Ashpole, J
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Serinus serinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2022.