Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 21,600,000-33,100,000 pairs, which equates to 43,200,000-66,100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.90% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 48,000,000-74,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).
This species inhabits a wide variety of habitats in boreal, temperate, steppe and Mediterranean zones, including the edges of lowland forest, deciduous and mixed forests, woods, plantations, copses and groves, orchards, churchyards, hedgerows, parks, edges of cultivation and gardens including in suburban and city centres. In Central Asia it is found in oases, edges of desert, semi-deserts, foothills and lower montane forests, including Juniper (Juniperus) scrub. Outside the breeding season it is found in similar habitats, but also in open fields, marshes and along the shoreline of open coasts. It breeds from mid-March to mid-August and is principally monogamous although occasionally polygamous. The nest is built 1–20 m from the ground in a bush, hedge, tree, creepers and occasionally in old or disused nests of other species or sometimes in an artificial site. It is a well-made cup of dry twigs, grasses, moss, lichens, plant fibres and down, animal hair, feathers and occasionally some man-made material. Clutches are four to six eggs. The diet is made up of a wide range of seeds, buds, flowers, berries and fruit as well as some arthropods. Some populations of the species are migratory while others are sedentary (Clement and de Juana 2016).
The species has suffered significant declines in the U.K. from trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, which lead to a fall in the population of c. 35% between 2005 and 2010 (Lawson et al. 2012). The species is trapped in some parts of its range.
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Research on how trichomonosis developed as an emerging infectious disease is required to determine if and how outbreaks would occur in the future (Lawson et al. 2012).
Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chloris chloris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021.