LC
Crested Tit Lophophanes cristatus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The European population is estimated at 5,450,000-9,810,000 pairs, which equates to 10,900,000-19,600,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately >95% of the global range.

Trend justification
In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).

Ecology

This species breeds predominately in coniferous woods. In Fennoscandia and western and central Europe it is found in forests of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) or Norway Spruce (Picea abies). In southern Europe it uses mixed-conifer montane forests (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It breeds from March to June and is monogamous, forming a lifelong pair bond. The nest is a cup of moss, lichens, animal hair, wool, feathers and gossamer, in a hole in a dead or decaying tree trunk, branch or stump, occasionally in a living tree. Occasionally uses a hole in a fence post or in the ground and nestboxes are also regularly used. It usually lays five to eleven eggs. It feeds mainly on small invertebrates and their larvae and outside the breeding season it will also consume seeds and some fruits. The species is mostly resident but is nomadic in the winter (Gosler and Clement 2007).

Threats

Populations of this species fluctuate in response to severe winter weather. The modernization of forestry practices has resulted in declines in Sweden and Czech Republic. In Scotland it suffered during 18th century from the destruction of its native Caledonian pine forest (Gosler and Clement 2007). In central Europe, atmospheric pollution has also led to declines in this species (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Gosler and Clement 2007).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The species would benefit from a reduction in industrial permissions. Management practices for forestry should be encouraged to leave dead or dying trees. In addition, the erection of nest boxes in plantations may be beneficial to this species (Ma??cas and Haeger 2004).

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Lophophanes cristatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2017.