VU
Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Ramos, J. A. 1993. Status and ecology of the Priolo or Azores Bullfinch. Thesis. Ph.D., Oxford, UK:University of Oxford.
Ramos, J. A. 1993. Status and ecology of the Priolo or Azores Bullfinch. Thesis. Ph.D., Oxford, UK:University of Oxford.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D1+2
2013 Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
2010 Endangered B2a+b(iii)
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(iii,v); B2a+b(iii,v)
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 30 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 160
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 102 good
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 627-1996 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Stable medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -

Population justification: Based on the probability of re-sighting ringed birds and observations between 2006-2008 the population was estimated at 1,608 ± 326 mature individuals, or c.800 pairs, roughly corresponding with a 2008 estimate of 1,064 ± 304 individuals obtained through distance-sampling methods and range size analysis, thus a population of c.1,300 individuals was estimated, roughly equivalent to 860-870 mature individuals. In 2012 the population was estimated at 230-760 pairs, which equates to 450-1,500 mature individuals or 675-2,250 individuals (Veríssimo 2013, BirdLife International 2015), and in 2016 the population size was estimated at 627-1,996 mature individuals (J. Teodósio in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: Annual census figures from 2002-2008 indicate that although there is some fluctuation the population is not currently declining (BirdLife International 2009) and there is evidence of recent population recovery (Ceia et al. 2011a). The current population trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). An annual survival rate was recently estimated at 0.62 which may have substantially contributed to the recent recovery of the population (Monticelli et al. 2010).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Portugal N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Pico da Vara

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) No decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pyrrhula murina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/10/2017.