Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it is largely confined to three small islands when breeding and is therefore highly susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. Recent data (2005-2008) from the Auckland Islands indicate declines in adult survival, productivity and recruitment, which, if confirmed by further monitoring, could result in a reclassification of Endangered or Critically Endangered.
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - oceanic island - Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally they have never been connected to a continental area by a land-ridge, and are volcanic in origin.
Realm - Neotropical - realm
Realm - Oceanic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome