Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species has rebounded from declines in the late 1990s and early 2000s, perhaps because apparent changes in the breeding populations reflected large scale environmental conditions that affected the number of birds that returned to the colonies to nest rather than actual declines in the population. Given the difficulty of predicting long-term trends for such a long-lived species, and the number of documented threats and the uncertainty over their future effects, the species is precautionarily projected to undergo a moderately rapid population decline over three generations (84 years), and as such qualifies as Near Threatened.
1180000 mature individuals
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Realm - Nearctic - realm
Realm - Neotropical - realm
Realm - Oceanic - realm
Realm - Palearctic - realm
Land-mass type - oceanic island - Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally they have never been connected to a continental area by a land-ridge, and are volcanic in origin.
Realm - Indomalayan - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome