Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species is known to be undergoing steep population decline in Europe, although numbers in its Asiatic strongholds are thought to be more stable. Thus it is probably experiencing a moderately rapid population decline overall, and consequently it is categorised as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing under criteria A2cde+3cde+4cde.
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Realm - Afrotropical - realm
Realm - Indomalayan - realm
Realm - Palearctic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Freshwater biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome
Raptors MOU - Species listed under annex 1 of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia