Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species has been uplisted to Vulnerable because it has a small population, which has been estimated through monitoring to be undergoing continuing declines of over 10% in three generations (39 years). Declines in eastern Australia are caused by reduced breeding success as a result of disturbance by people, dogs and horses, as well as predation by introduced foxes and native Silver Gulls and Australian Ravens that have increased as a result of human activity; in Western Australia declines are less marked and driven by habitat degradation arising from cattle grazing and water abstraction for agriculture.
7000 mature individuals
Land-mass type - Australia - Australia is classified as an Island-Continent.
Land-mass type - shelf island - Continental islands include all other islands or island groups. Generally they were once part of continents and lie on a continental shelf of < 200 m sea depth.
Realm - Oceanic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Freshwater biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome