Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because its population exhibits extreme fluctuations within its extremely small range. Conservation action is seeking to remove existing threats or increase the species's resilience to them, and the population was increasing following the successful reintroduction of birds to Midway Atoll, however outbreaks of avian botulism and the 2011 tsunami appear to have caused major setbacks to the recovery. The species is consequently precautionarily maintained as Critically Endangered, since although it now occurs at two locations and was recently translocated to a third island, population fluctuations have continued within the past five years.
500-680 mature individuals
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - oceanic island - Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally Oceanic islands are islands or island groups that are <200,000 sq km in size and separated from other land masses by >200 m sea depth. Generally they have never been connected to a continental area by a land-ridge, and are volcanic in origin.
Realm - Oceanic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Terrestrial biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome