NT
Zapata Sparrow Torreornis inexpectata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened C2a(i); D1
2018 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 26 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 81,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,916
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 600-1700 medium inferred 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The nominate subspecies inexpectata numbers more than 250 individuals (Wells and Mitchell 1995; E. Abreu in litt. 1999), subspecies sigmani numbers 600-700 individuals (Kirkconnell and Suarez 2005), while subspecies varonai is described as 'numerous' (P. López Delgado in litt. 2016). The overall population is therefore tentatively inferred to number 1,000-2,499 individuals, which roughly equates to 600-1,700 mature individuals. Further study is however required to confirm this estimate.
It is assumed that the species forms three disjunct subpopulations, which are identical with the three subspecies. Based on available information, the largest subpopulation numbers 600-700 individuals (Kirkconnell and Suarez 2005), equating to 400-470 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population of subspecies inexpectata is described as stable (Wells and Mitchell 1995; E. Abreu in litt. 1999), but no trend data is available for the other two subspecies. The species is described as having a medium degree of sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance (Parker et al. 1996; Kim and Slager 2020), and as such it is suspected that the species is declining overall due to habitat degradation and loss.
It has been estimated that habitat within the range has been reduced by 20% in the 20 years prior to 2012 (González et al. 2012). Tentatively assuming that this is continuing at the same rate to the present day, available habitat may have declined by 7% over the past ten years. The rate of population decline is therefore placed in the band 1-9% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cuba N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Cuba Hatibonico - Baitiquirí - Imías
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata
Cuba Archipiélago de Sabana - Camagüey
Cuba Costa Sur Guantánamo - Maisí

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Torreornis inexpectata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/08/2022.