NT
Yemen Thrush Turdus menachensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2018 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2017 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 150,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-24000 poor suspected 2022
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: Based on density data from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Arabia (Jennings 2010) applied to the predicted area of suitable habitat, a revised population size is suspected to the fall into the band of 6,000-24,000 mature individuals. Jennings (2010) suggested a population size of 10,000 pairs. With evidence of some some altitudinal or latitudinal movements (Stagg 1984, Collar and Sharpe 2020) it is tentatively assumed that all mature individuals occur in one subpopulation.

Trend justification: Studies in Asir, Saudi Arabia have shown that the population has undergone a decline, perhaps due to temporary factors such as a recent drought in the region (M. Jennings in litt. 2016); this decline seems to be continuing across key habitats in upper elevational ranges of Saudi Arabia, with the species most threatened by loss of primary juniper forests, urban development, hunting and increases in natural predators (J. Judas in litt. 2022, M. Shobrak in litt. 2022). In Yemen, lopping and cutting of trees and shrubs, for fuel, fodder and building material were thought to be proceeding at unsustainable levels in many parts of Yemen in previous years (Bowden 1987, Scholte et al. 1991, O. Al Saghier via R. Porter in litt. 2022), causing a net loss of dense wooded cover. And although previously considered not to be targeted for food due to its inconspicuous nature (R. Porter in litt. 2017), the species may now be killed for food due to the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Yemen (R. Porter in litt. 2022), though this is uncertain. The species does however readily occur in urban habitats and may occupy fragmented woodlands (J. Babbington and P. Roberts in litt. 2016). Population declines are therefore not considered to exceed 20% over three generations and as such, the species is suspected to be undergoing a decline of 1-19%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Raydah escarpment
Yemen Haraz mountains
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Kawkaban - Shibam
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn
Yemen Jabal al-Nabi Shu'ayb

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 1200 - 3100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluctuations Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Papio hamadryas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Turdus menachensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2022.