Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bradbury, R. B.; Kyrkos, A.; Morris, A. J.; Clark, S. C.; Perkins, A. J.; Wilson, J. D. 2000. Habitat associations and breeding success of yellowhammers on lowland farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 789-805.

Copete, J.L. 2016. Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. European Bird Census Council. Available at:

Hagemeijer, E.J.M. and Blair, M.J. 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T. and A. D. Poyser, London.

Hart, J.D., Milsom, T.P., Fisher, G., Wilkins, V., Moreby, S.J., Murray, A.W.A. and Robertson, P.A. 2006. The relationship between yellowhammer breeding performance arthropod abundance and insecticide applications on arable farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 81-91.

Morris, A.J., Wilson, J.D., Whittingham, M.J. and Bradbury, R.B. 2005. Indirect effects of pesticides on breeding yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 106: 1-16.

Orlowski, G., Czarnecka, J. and Golawski, A. 2014. Winter diet of Yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella on contemporary farmland: the different contribution of forbs, wild grasses and cereals in semi-natural and agricultural habitats. Bird Study 61: 484-495.

Panov, E.N., Roubtsov, A.S. and Monzikov, D.G. 2003. Hybridization between Yellowhammer and Pine Bunting in Russia. Dutch Birding 25(1): 17-31.

Perkins, A.J., Whittingham, M.J., Morris, A.J. and Bradbury, R.B. 2002. Use of field margins by foraging yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93(413-420).

Whittingham, M.J., Swetnam, R.D., Wilson, J.D., Chamberlain, D.E. and Freckleton, R.P. 2005. Habitat selection by yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella on lowland farmland at two spatial scales: implications for conservation management. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 270-280.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Emberiza citrinella. Downloaded from on 10/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/06/2023.