LC
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 30 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 23,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 40000000-69999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 12,800,000-19,900,000 pairs, which equates to 25,500,000-39,700,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.60% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 42,000,000-66,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and reduction in cultivation of cereal crops. In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) V Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Nepal V Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan V Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Portugal Gerês mountains
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Nanoščica river basin
Slovenia Reka valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Valtavaara-Pyhävaara
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
France Marais de Sacy
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Rieti mountains
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Val Grande
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Cer mountain
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Slanské hills
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Sysľovské fields
Slovakia Horná Orava
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Riečnica
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Serbia Jerma
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Lobau
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Machland
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Esterweger Dose
Germany Hudewälder northeast of Haldensleben
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Styrian Joglland
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Krasnopols'kyj Forest
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Luosto
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Germany Esterweger Dose
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Emberiza citrinella. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.