VU
Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2ac+3c+4c; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2ac+3c+4c; C2a(i)
2013 Vulnerable A2ac+3c+4c;C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2ac+3c+4c;C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; ; A4c; C1; C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 359,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -

Population justification: Although this species has a large EOO (210,000 km2), it is very patchily distributed, in being restricted to hills and hill ranges. Surveys of 18 sites showed it to be common in intact suitable habitat, but this was 'very limited'. Analysis of the detailed account in BirdLife International (2001) suggests that the total population may well be below 10,000 individuals, so it is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals here. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Recent surveys of 18 sites found that the species had disappeared from six historical locations. Habitat loss is occurring throughout its fragmented range, suggesting that rapid population declines are likely to be on-going, although habitat in south India is largely intact and in some areas vegetation on hills is recovering (S. Subramanya in litt. 2016). It is thought to have been significantly more abundant in the past, particularly in the Western Ghats (Subramanya et al. 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
India N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
India Adichunchunagiri Wildlife Sanctuary
India Arabhithittu Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bandipur National Park
India Bannerghatta National Park
India Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and Hills
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
India Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Hampi and Daroji Bear Sanctuary
India Horsley Hills
India Jogimatti Reserve Forest
India Kaundinya Wildlife Sanctuary
India Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mudumalai National Park
India Nandi Hills
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve)
India Ramanagara Reserve Forest
India Sri Penusila Narasimha Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 300 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluctuations Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus xantholaemus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2017.