Yellow-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius xanthomus


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened Birds of the Americas: The ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Cruz-Burgos, J. A.; López-Flores, M.; Puente-Rolón, G. 1997. Natural nest survey for yellow-shouldered blackbirds (Agelaius xanthomus) in southwestern Puerto Rico. Final report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Caribbean Field Office.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.

Liu, I. A.; López-Ortiz, R.; Ramos-Álvarez, K.; Medina-Miranda, R. 2018. Using population genetics and demographic reconstruction to predict outcomes of genetic rescue for an endangered songbird. Conservation Genetics 19(3): 729-736.

Liu, I.A. 2015. Conservation genetics and genetic mating system of the yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), an endangered island endemic. Conservation Genetics 16: 1041-1053.

Medina-Miranda, R., Lopez-Ortiz, R., Ramos-Alvarez, K., Cruz-Burgos, J., McKenzie, P., Swinnerton, K., Ortega, C., Cruz, A., Liu, I., Lacy, R., Miller, P., Dıaz-Soltero, H., and Traylor-Holzer, K. 2013. Yellow-shouldered blackbird/shiny cowbird population and habitat viability assessment workshop final report. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley.

Miller, P. S., Lacy, R. C., Medina-Miranda, R., López-Ortiz, R., and Díaz-Soltero, H. 2016. Confronting the invasive species crisis with metamodel analysis: An explicit, two-species demographic assessment of an endangered bird and its brood parasite in Puerto Rico. Biological Conservation 196: 124-132.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Reitsma, L. R. 1998. Survey of yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus) nesting success in natural substrate in southwest Puerto Rico 1998. Report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Caribbean Field Office..

Skutch, A. F. 1996. Orioles, blackbirds and their kin: a natural history. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1996. Yellow-shouldered Blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus): revised recovery plan.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2011. Mariquita or yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Caribbean Ecological Services Field Office, Boquerón, Puerto Rico.

U.S. FIsh and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2018. Mariquita or yellow-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Southeast Region Caribbean Ecological Services Field Office Boquerón, Puerto Rico.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2019. Yellow-shouldered blackbird Recovery Plan Amendment. . Caribbean Ecological Services Field Office, Boqueron.

Further resources

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - Recovery Plan

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Agelaius xanthomus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/08/2022.