NT
Yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Near Threatened A3cd; C1+2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii)
2013 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 135,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor inferred 2021
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 5 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.5 - - -

Population justification: The overall population size is unclear and difficult to assess. The subpopulation on Margarita Island was estimated at 1,600 individuals in 2019 (J. M. Briceño-Linares per Provita in litt. 2020), which equates to roughly 1,000 mature individuals. The subpopulation on Bonaire numbered around 700 individuals in 2017 (DCNA 2018), equating to 450 mature individuals. The most recent estimate from La Blanquilla is from 1996-1998, when the island held around 100 individuals (Sanz and Rodríguez-Ferraro 2006), equating to roughly 60 mature individuals. The subpopulation in north-western Venezuela was estimated at over 5,000 individuals in 2012 (V. Sanz in litt. 2016), equating to roughly 3,300 mature individuals. In view of the ongoing threats, it is suspected that this subpopulation has declined since then (Ferrer-Paris et al. 2014). There are no estimates for the subpopulation in north-eastern Venezuela, but based on observational records (eBird 2021), it is may be smaller than the north-western subpopulation (Ferrer-Paris et al. 2014). Based on the available values for the subpopulation sizes, assuming that the subpopulation in north-western Venezuela is now below 3,300 mature individuals, and accounting for a subpopulation of unknown size in north-eastern Venezuela, it is preliminarily inferred that the total population numbers between 2,500 and 9,999 mature individuals. 
The species is assumed to form five subpopulations; on Bonaire, La Blanquilla, Margarita, in north-western Venezuela and north-eastern Venezuela. It is thought that the largest subpopulation is found in north-western Venezuela (C. Sharpe in litt. 2021), which numbered up to 3,300 mature individuals in 2012 but has likely declined since then. It is here tentatively placed in the band 1,000-3,300 mature individuals.





Trend justification: The largest subpopulation on Margarita Island has increased from 750 individuals in 1989 (Sanz and Grajal 1998) to 1,600 individuals in 2019 (J. M. Briceño-Linares per Provita in litt. 2020) and is currently considered to be stable (V. Sanz in litt. 2016). On Bonaire, the size of the subpopulation increased moderately from c. 350 individuals in 1980 to around 700 individuals in 2017 (DCNA 2018). There is no information on the trend of the subpopulation on La Blanquilla. The stable or increasing trends on the islands are due to conservation efforts; if these were to stop the populations may start declining (R. Martin in litt. 2021).
On the mainland, the species was in decline in 2003 (Hilty 2003), but there are no recent trend estimates available. The detection probability was found to be stable in 70% of the mainland range, declining in 18% and increasing in 12% (E. Blanco in litt. 2020). Nevertheless, both subpopulations on the mainland are facing a number of threats, including habitat loss and high pressure from hunting for the bird trade (R. Martin in litt. 2020; Provita in litt. 2020; L. Schmaltz in litt. 2020). It is inferred that as a consequence of these threats, the population on the mainland is undergoing a decline. Despite the stable or increasing trends of the subpopulations on the islands, it is precautionarily assumed that due to the declines on the mainland, the overall population is undergoing a continuing decline. The rate has not been quantified, but is suspected to exceed 10% over three generations (R. Martin and T. James in litt. 2021).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extinct Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Possibly Extant
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Humedales Boca de Hueque y Sauca
Venezuela Humedales Boca del Río Unare
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla
Venezuela Parque Nacional Laguna de La Restinga
Venezuela Parque Nacional Médanos de Coro
Venezuela Parque Nacional Mochima
Venezuela Morrocoy National Park
Venezuela Reserva de Fauna Silvestre Tucurere
Venezuela Pedernales-Capure
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Lac Bay, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washikemba - Fontein - Onima, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Dos Pos, Bonaire

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 450 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Equus asinus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Amazona barbadensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2022.