VU
Yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B1ab(i,ii,iii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii)
2013 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 121,000 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1700-5600 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Unknown poor -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 0-25 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -

Population justification: The species's island populations appear to fluctuate, but total around 2000 on Margarita in 2015 (Rojas-Suárez & Rodríguez 2015), around 100 on Blanquilla (J. P. Rodriguez in litt. 2016) and 400-450 on Bonaire (Rojas-Suárez & Rodríguez 2015).  The mainland population has not been estimated but a recent analysis suggested that it is likely to be very low or restricted (Ferrer-Paris et al. 2014) and it probably numbers in the hundreds (J. P. Rodriguez in litt. 2016), although it has been suggested that it may number over 5,000 (V. Sanz in litt. 2016).  The total population is therefore likely to number between 2,590 and 8,470 individuals, equating to 1,727 - 5647 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,700-5,600 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Numbers on the islands appear to fluctuate, but have increased on Margarita from 750 birds in 1989 (Sanz and Grajal 1998) to around 2,000 on Margarita in 2015 (Rojas-Suárez & Rodríguez 2015).  The population on Bonaire is increasing and was estimated to number 400 individuals in 2006 (Williams and Martin 2006) and 650-800 individuals in 2012 (Department of Resources and Planning, Bonaire per R. Martin and S. Williams in litt. 2012).  The mainland population was considered to be in decline in 2003 (Hilty 2003).  Habitat continues to be lost in the eastern part of the mainland range (V. Sanz in litt. 2016) and the population in Araya (eastern Venezuela) is thought to be in decline owing to poaching and conversion of habitat to agriculture (V. Sanz in litt. 2016), so it is probable that the mainland population continues to decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extinct Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extinct Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Humedales Boca de Hueque y Sauca
Venezuela Humedales Boca del Río Unare
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Isla La Blanquilla
Venezuela Parque Nacional Laguna de La Restinga
Venezuela Parque Nacional Médanos de Coro
Venezuela Parque Nacional Mochima
Venezuela Morrocoy National Park
Venezuela Reserva de Fauna Silvestre Tucurere
Venezuela Pedernales-Capure
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Lac Bay, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washikemba - Fontein - Onima, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Dos Pos, Bonaire

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 450 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Equus asinus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Amazona barbadensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.