LC
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
L. michahellis and L. armenicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as L. michahellis following a review by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group. Prior to that, L. armenicus had been split and L. cachinnans (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) had been lumped with L. michahellis as L. cachinnans following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,200,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,400,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown 0
Population trend Increasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: The global population size is unknown owing to recent taxonomic splits. The European population is estimated at 409,000-534,000 pairs, which equates to 819,000-1,070,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have stable or unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nigeria V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Malta Filfla islet
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Portugal Berlenga and Farilhões islands
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia River Drava
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake
Turkey Bosphorus
Turkey Küçükçekmece Basin
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyaigos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Serifos island
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Agioi Theodoroi islet, Crete
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Lake Doïrani
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Spain Cíes islands
Spain Ons islands
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Ribadesella-Tina Mayor
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Medas islands
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Tajo de Barbate coastal cliffs
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Tagomago island
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Cape Pinar
Spain Cape Freu-Cape Farrutx
Spain Cape Vermell
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Alicante islets
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Portios islets - Conejera island - Mouro islet
Spain Tina Menor-Sarnosa island-Oyambre
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Alborán island
Spain Sandy plain of Corralejo
Spain Garachico rocky islet
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Spain Majona coast
Spain Garafía rocky islets
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón
Spain Salmor rocky islets
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Mars sur Allier
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Iles Sanguinaires
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Iles d'Hyères
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Haute chaîne du Jura: défilé de l'écluse, Etournel et Mont Vuache
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Federseeried
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Tunisia Côte de Zerkine et El Grine
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Turkey Saros Bay
Turkey İstanbul Islands
Turkey Marmara Islands
Turkey Ayvalık
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Çiçek Islands
Turkey Bodrum Islands
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Besadalar
Turkey Central Black Sea Coast
Turkey Giresun Island
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Tsalapitsa Rice-fields
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains
Portugal Berlengas
Portugal Graciosa
Portugal Santa Maria
Portugal Desertas
Portugal Selvagens - Oceânica
Spain Entorno marino de las rías Baixas
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Larus michahellis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2021.