Yellow-knobbed Curassow Crax daubentoni


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened C1+2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened C1; C2a(i)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 558,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6600-27000 poor suspected 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-15 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-15 - - -
Number of subpopulations 6-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 10,000-40,000 individuals. This roughly equates to 6,600-27,000 mature individuals. Estimates of population density in the Venezuelan llanos vary, with 80-160 individuals/km2 in riparian forest and 2.7-43.7 individuals/km2 in dry forest, both in the dry season (Brooks 2006). The species is divided into more than five subpopulations, each of which is fragmented and declining.

Trend justification: A slow and ongoing population decline is inferred owing to hunting for food and sport and habitat loss and fragmentation. An analysis of forest loss from 2000 to 2012 found that forest within the species's range was lost at a rate equivalent to 9% over three generation lengths (Tracewski et al. 2016). Given that hunting is also likely to be contributing to declines, the population is suspected to be declining at 10-15% across three generations (34.5 years).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Parque Nacional Aguaro-Guariquito
Venezuela Reserva de Fauna Silvestre Ciénagas de Juan Manuel, Aguas Blancas y Aguas Negras
Venezuela Parque Nacional Ciénagas de Juan Manuel
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Reserva de Fauna Silvestre Esteros de Camaguán
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo
Venezuela Reserva Privada Hato El Cedral
Venezuela Reserva Privada Hato El Frío
Venezuela Reserva Privada Hato Piñero
Venezuela Reserva Privada Hato Masaguaral
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Zona Protectora Macizo Montañoso del Turimiquire
Venezuela Palmichal
Venezuela Peninsula de Paria National Park (Parque Nacional Península de Paria IBA)
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá
Venezuela Zona Protectora San Rafael de Guasare
Venezuela Parque Nacional Santos Luzardo
Venezuela Parque Nacional Laguna de Tacarigua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 100 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Crax daubentoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/10/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/10/2022.