EN
Yellow-headed Amazon Amazona oratrix



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcd+4bcd A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd;C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bcd+4bcd
2013 Endangered A2bcd+4bcd
2012 Endangered A2bcd+4bcd
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,020,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4700 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.3 - - -

Population justification: The population was estimated at 7,000 individuals in 1994. This is roughly equivalent to 4,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species's population is estimated to be in very rapid decline, owing to habitat loss and degradation and levels of trapping and persecution. It suffered a dramatic population decline, judged at 90% between the mid-1970s and 1994. On the coast of Michoacán, Mexico, it has been calculated that the species occupies 45.6% of its estimated historic distribution (Monterrubio-Rico et al. 2007). Along the entire Pacific coast of Mexico its historical range has contracted by 79% (Monterrubio-Rico et al. 2010). The population at Punta de Manabique declined by 30% from 1994 to 2001 primarily because of nest poaching (Eisermann 2003, Eisermann in litt. 2007).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belize N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Belize Crooked Tree and associated wetlands
Belize Northeastern Belize
Guatemala Guatemalan Caribbean Slope
Mexico Acahuizotla-Agua del Obispo
Mexico Biósfera Reserv mountain Fast
Mexico Centro de Veracruz
Mexico Chamela-Cuitzmala
Mexico Coalcomán-Pómaro
Mexico Humedal South of Tamaulipas and North Veracruz
Mexico Humedales de Alvarado
Mexico Island Marías
Mexico Lagoon of Términos
Mexico Mountain of Manantlán
Mexico Prey Drawer of Rocks
Mexico Prey Vicente Guerrero
Mexico Quebradas de Sinaloa, Nayarit y Durango.
Mexico Ranch The Colorado and influence area
Mexico Selvas Naryaritas
Mexico Sierra de Atoyac y Bosques de Niebla de la Costa Grande
Mexico Swamps of Centla
Mexico the sky
Mexico The Tuxtlas
Mexico Tlanchinol y bosques de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo
Mexico Uxpanapa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Amazona oratrix. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/08/2017.