VU
Yellow-eyed Pigeon Columba eversmanni



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has declined rapidly in the past, probably as a result of changing agricultural practice and hunting in its wintering grounds, and possibly habitat loss in its breeding grounds, and this decline is projected to continue. These factors qualify it as Vulnerable; although there have been reported local population increases, and if this should prove to be a more general trend then the species may warrant downlisting in the future.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The species declined historically owing to hunting pressure, and declines are suspected to be continuing today through the widespread loss and conversion of habitat in both its breeding and wintering ranges (del Hoyo at al. 1997); although there have been local population increases (Bohra and Vyas 2014, D. L. Bohra in litt. 2016), but it is not certain whether this is representative for the global population.

Distribution and population

Columba eversmanni breeds in southern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, TajikistanKyrgyzstanAfghanistan, north-east Iran and extreme north-west China (BirdLife International 2001). Its status and distribution within this range are poorly known. It winters in Pakistan and north-west India, historically as far east as Bihar, and southern Xinjiang and western Gansu, China. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was recorded in huge flocks in its wintering grounds, particularly in the Punjab, India. However, it has declined rapidly, from wintering flocks numbering thousands of birds to flocks generally only of tens or a few hundreds of birds, with occasional larger counts, most recently (1995) of up to 2,000 individuals in a single flock. Whether it continues to decline is unclear, and there is some evidence that it may have steadily increased at one site in India (Jorbeer dead animal dump) since 2011 (Bohra and Vyas 2014, D. L. Bohra in litt. 2016).

Ecology

It breeds in holes in trees, buildings, cliffs, earth banks, and potentially on power lines (D. L. Bohra in litt. 2016) in semi-arid and desert areas, including around human settlement and (at least in Kazakhstan) in woodland. In winter, it occurs in open areas with scattered trees, often with agricultural crops, and in areas with suitable fruiting trees, where it roosts and feeds gregariously. It is reportedly on the rise in the western part of the Thar Desert where it experiences extreme temperatures, within a habitat of sparse thorny vegetation and grasses (D. L. Bohra in litt. 2016). Its diet includes grass seeds, arable crop seeds and the fruit of trees and shrubs, including Zizyphus and mulberry Morus alba.

Threats

Hunting in both its breeding and wintering grounds has been the primary cause of its decline and continues to be a major threat in China. In India, intensification of arable cultivation and a change from the large-scale cultivation of pulses and mustard to wheat and rice has reduced the quality of habitat in its key wintering areas. Destruction of poplar Populus woodland is believed to have had a major impact on the breeding population in eastern Kazakhstan.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
In China, 15 protected areas have been designated within its range. In India, it occurs around the Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary, Punjab.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey its central Asian breeding range to establish the size and distribution of the breeding population, key threats and habitat requirements. Investigate habitat requirements in its wintering grounds. Protect important breeding habitat from further loss and degradation. Protect it from hunting across its range, particularly in China, where it should be listed as a protected species, and in India. Improve management of protected areas holding the species.

Identification

30 cm. Medium-sized, mostly grey pigeon but with brownish cast to upperparts. Yellow eyes and eye-ring. Whitish lower back, rump and underwing. Diffuse, dark tail-band. Narrow black bar across secondaries. Juvenile has brownish-tinged eyes and lacks gloss in plumage. Similar spp. Rock Pigeon C. livia larger with grey tail and well defined terminal band. Broader, more extensive black bars across greater coverts, tertials and secondaries. Hill Pigeon C. rupestris has white subterminal band and black terminal band to tail. Voice Quiet oo-oo-oo during breeding season. Hints In winter, scrutinise large flocks of pigeons in north India and west Pakistan.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Peet, N., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Benstead, P., Westrip, J.

Contributors
Bohra, D.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Columba eversmanni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2021.