Yellow-eyed Pigeon Columba eversmanni


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 202 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,080,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,820,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor suspected 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -

Population justification: The species is described as being rare in most of its range (Baptista et al. 2020). The population size is preliminarily suspected to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The species declined historically owing to hunting pressure, and declines are suspected to be continuing today through the widespread loss and conversion of habitat in both its breeding and wintering ranges (del Hoyo at al. 1997); although there have been local population increases (Bohra and Vyas 2014, D. L. Bohra in litt. 2016), but it is not certain whether this is representative for the global population. Precautionarily, the species is therefore suspected of undergoing a rapid decline over 10 years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley
Afghanistan Dashte Nawar
Afghanistan North-western steppe
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis
China (mainland) Jinta
China (mainland) Minqin
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Sharan Reserve Forest
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Kazakhstan Aksu-Dzhabagly State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Zheltoranga
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Tajikistan Sarazm
Turkmenistan Garachop
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Afghanistan Darqad
Afghanistan Imam Sahib
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Tajikistan Alichur Valley
India Jor Beer

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable non-breeding
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Columba eversmanni. Downloaded from on 20/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/03/2023.